How to grow a Canna Lily from seed
By Michael O’Brien, EMG
Interestingly enough, a Canna Lily actually has nothing to do withl. Its scientific name is Canna indica. The closest living relations to cannas are the other plant families of the order Zingiberales, that is the Zingiberaceae (gingers), Musaceae (bananas) and a few others.
Canna indica is native to South America. Their homes are in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina as well as in the West Indies and Central America. Canna lilies can be added to a garden for a dramatic appeal during our warmer months.
Canna lilies command your attention. They are an amazing plant as they stand upright about three feet tall with majestic blooms. As the summer days begin to fade the canna lily flowers will die off, at that time they will and begin to create a rather large seed pod. There can be as many as eight seeds inside these pods. Towards the end of September, when these pods stop growing they will turn brown and begin to split open, allowing the seeds to fall to the ground. The call to action begins when the seed pod is brown and just about to split open. It’s time to cut off the pods.
After collecting all of the pods, carefully open each one. The pod will have what looks like black beans inside them, that’s what’s going to be saved until early spring. Save the seeds in a cool dry area. Never let them sit in freezing temperatures. These seeds have a very hard outer shell. In nature where canna lilies grow in their native habitat these seeds can sit in the ground for up to ten years before germinating.
In early spring these seeds must be scarified to be germinated. Scarification is the process which nature uses to weaken the hard outer covering of the seed. At home use a pair of pliers or vise grips to hold the seed securely. Using sand paper or a dremel tool with a sanding bit, begin to sand the seed until the white membrane begins to show. It’s best to expose an area that is a half an inch to an inch long. The exposed area only has to be about a quarter inch wide, this will allow enough moisture to reach the embryo.
Once all of the seeds are done, put them in a glass of water for about three days. During that time a white nub will begin to grow out of the seed. Take these seeds out and plant them in potting soil. In about a weeks’ time there will be a green shoot growing.
These new plants can be planted outside when there is no longer a danger of frost. These young plants will require a full summers worth of growth. The following year when they are planted outside they will flower. An important note, in the fall upon the first frost canna lilies must be taken out of the ground and stored inside in a cool dry area.