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March meeting presentations available!

Did you enjoy the presentations from our March meeting?  Did you want to see all of the presentations but couldn’t split yourself in two? Our speakers have been kind enough to share their presentations with us and they are provided below!

Topics:

Growing Food: 

Cultivating Your Eden
by Greg Hart, Seeds

Whether you have room for one raised bed or a 1/2-acre garden, you can produce food from your home and enjoy the benefits of arm’s-reach freshness!  Greg Hart of Seeds discussed some of the strategies involved in cultivating your Eden. See his presentation in the link below!

Growing Food by Greg Hart, Seeds

Gardening with Kids presentation by Lianna Bowman

Here’s a link to the Farm to School website as well

Improving Community:

Successful Landscape Design for the Do-It-Yourself Homeowner
By Brian Zimmerman, Brian Zimmerman & Associates.

Learn from Brian’s 25 years of design experience about how to achieve a landscape that functions well and encourages you to be in the garden. We discussed the many common mistakes and how to avoid them. A portion of the program focused on how to minimize irrigation and fertilizer use to grow stronger plants.

Environmental Stewardship:

Habitat Matters: Gardening for Wildlife in Northwest Michigan
by Katie Grzesiak, Northwest Michigan Invasive Species Network

Learn more about the complicated and inspiring relationships between plants and insects, how these links impact other wildlife, and the challenges these relationships face in northwest Michigan. Find out about how to make your garden a better place for the wildlife with which we share our region. Here’s her presentation!

Habitat Matters presentation by K. Grzesiak

Youth Gardening: 

Getting Kids (and their adults) Going in the Garden
By Lilly Mahaney and Sue Sensenbaugh, Master Gardeners

Want to garden more with kids? Whether with your kids at home, for an after school program, or for an existing club, this workshop will help you get started. Learn about existing opportunities to get involved, or find out how to get something new started. Either way, tap into a network of support within the community to help you find success.

To get involved, read about the Junior Master Gardener Program, and contact Lillian to get started!

And remind yourself what it means to have fun in the garden!


Board Meeting dates changed!

We would like to extend an open door for all memebers to join us at our monthly board meetings. This year we have decided to change things slightly, and hold the board meetings on the THIRD WEDNESDAY of the month. This change was implemented as an effort to accomodate our ever-changing schedules, and hope that you can join us. We are always happy for member input!


Let’s Get Growing! March 4th, 6pm

Lets get growing poster

Join the Master Gardener Association for its first annual Spring kick-off. Snacks and refreshments provided.

When: March 4th, 2014, 6pm-9pm
Where: Boardman River Nature Center, 1450 Cass Rd (see map)
Costs: Free for MGANM members, a suggested donation of $10 for the public attendance.
What: Join the Master Gardener Association for four exciting talks, one for each of our focus areas. Get yourself pumped for an exciting season of hands in the soil, and connect yourself with an active, engaged community of gardeners.
Parking @ Let’s Get Growing; Your Help Needed!
We may have an excellent turnout for Let’s Get Growing. You may have heard me on WTCM on Monday promoting the event. Since parking may be tight at the Boardman River Nature Center, please carpool if you can, and be ready to use our backup parking options. Please plan to park farther away, to ensure room for any guests from the community who may attend.
Backup parking (Please stop at either location and carpool from there to the BRNC)
1. Hartmann & Cass Rd., @ the Bible Baptist Church, 1/2 mile north of the Nature Center. (click for map)
2. TCAPS Bus parking area (click for map)

We are fortunate enough to have help from Mike Deering and Gary Clous in guiding traffic for the event. Please give them your thanks!

Topics:

Growing Food: 

Cultivating Your Eden
by Greg Hart, Seeds

Whether you have room for one raised bed or a 1/2-acre garden, you can produce food from your home and enjoy the benefits of arm’s-reach freshness!  Greg Hart of Seeds will discuss some of the strategy involved in cultivating your Eden.

Improving Community:

Successful Landscape Design for the Do-It-Yourself Homeowner
By Brian Zimmerman, Brian Zimmerman & Associates.

Learn from Brian’s 25 years of design experience about how to achieve a landscape that functions well and encourages you to be in the garden. We will discuss the many common mistakes and how to avoid them. A portion of the program will focus on how to minimize irrigation and fertilizer use to grow stronger plants.

Environmental Stewardship:

Habitat Matters: Gardening for Wildlife in Northwest Michigan
by Katie Grzesiak, Northwest Michigan Invasive Species Network

Learn more about the complicated and inspiring relationships between plants and insects, how these links impact other wildlife, and the challenges these relationships face in northwest Michigan. Find out about how to make your garden a better place for the wildlife with which we share our region.

Youth Gardening: 

Getting Kids (and their adults) Going in the Garden
By Lilly Mahaney and Sue Sensenbaugh, Master Gardeners

Want to garden more with kids? Whether with your kids at home, for an after school program, or for an existing club, this workshop will help you get started. Learn about existing opportunities to get involved, or find out how to get something new started. Either way, tap into a network of support within the community to help you find success.

And remind yourself what it means to have fun in the garden!


Steward – March ’14 Real Dirt

Contents

Master Gardeners Visit American Waste

Effects of a Harsh Winter

Vermicomposting

Master Gardeners Visit American Waste

by Nancy Denison

Am Waste group photo

Newspaper, cardboard, metal, glass, plastics, nursery trays and plastic flower pots, oh my!  I usually drop off my recycling about once a month at the American Waste center off Hammond Rd and now I may be going more often after touring their facility.  I had heard about all the processing they can do so I was really interested in joining our group on Tuesday night.  WOW—who knew recycling could be so fascinating??!!

Laurel Durkin and Pat Cline, American Waste account managers, shared a short slide show and gave a bit of history of the company; privately owned, ten locations, 42 years in business and over 350 employees, and then led us around the huge sorters, separators, and shakers.  It was loud and cold out there but so interesting how certain materials were moved to their own spot- cans, plastic, paper, glass.  Then there was the self-baler for the cardboard, and the trucks coming in to dump their collection.  They even take construction/demolition materials!

This is an award winning adaptive reuse project which just began in June of 2011 and is the largest facility of its kind in the Midwest   I was very impressed with the attitude of respect shown by the line workers as well as the account managers.  Several times Pat shouted out a “Thank you” to the folks working a later shift for our tour as well as picking up items which flew out of the conveyor area.  And it is pretty darn cool that we have such a state of the art recycling center in our area.

If you ever have another opportunity to tour this facility, do it…you will be even more motivated to recycle than you were before! View one of our videos from our tour:

Video of the sorting line

Resource: americanwaste.org
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Effects of a Harsh Winter

by Cheryl Gross

Struggling Arborvitae

We humans have spent a lot of time ‘dealing’ with an unusually harsh winter season.  As we look ahead longingly for Spring temperatures and the gardening/growing season, we may want to consider what effect all of this snow and cold has had on our plants and their environment.  To help parse this out, we contacted some local experts, Nikki Rothwell, Northwest Michigan Horticultural Research Station, Brian Zimmerman, Four Season Nursery,  Mike Jones, Benzie Conservation District, and Katie Grzesiak, Invasive Species Network.

On landscape plants, Zimmerman stated that the winter has been good. “Plants had a great growing season in 2013; relatively cool and sufficient moisture”.  This allowed plants to go into the winter with strong roots.  The heavy blanket of snow has insulated most of our landscape plants.  Further, he says “most winter desiccation comes on in the early spring when snow cover is minimal and we have fluctuations that take temperatures from above freezing to well below.”  He predicts there will be a “good flush” this spring and even if there is die back, that stored energy will push out a lot of new growth.

As for our fruit trees/plants, the picture is not quite so rosy.  Rothwell says it has been variable in the fruit belt up and down Michigan’s west coast.  Southwest Michigan’s peaches, wine grapes and fruit grapes are believed to have been hit hard by the cold temperatures.  The apples and tart cherries may be fine, however in Northwest Michigan, the wine grapes are the worry.  That variety does not appreciate the cold, but only spring will tell.  “Anything under the snow is fine”, confirmed Rothwell.  In Northwest Michigan, the almost constant cloud cover has helped to moderate the temperatures.  Clear skies drop the temperatures much lower.  Does this shed a different light on our feelings towards gray skies?

Mike Jones assures us that Michigan’s native plants, flowers, grasses, trees, and shrubs will all fare well this winter.  He too noted the 2013 good growing season and the value of ample snow cover for insulation.  “Michigan native plants are accustomed to, and tolerant of, the wide variations in our winter weather.”

Invasive species may have another tale to tell, with any luck.  “Water hyacinth and kudzu may be harmed by the harsh weather which will stunt it’s spread” according to Katie Grzesiak.  Both Grzesiak and Jones discussed the effect of heavy lingering snow on Garlic Mustard.  The Garlic Mustard begins it’s growing cycle according to temperature.  The mild winters and early springs have gotten it growing early.  Michigan native woodland plants are awakened by the hours of daylight.  The closer the temperature and light availability are in sync, the better chance our Michigan natives have to successfully compete against the invasive plants.

Other effects of the harsh winter on our environment include groundwater.  Jones is quite pleased with these weather conditions.  With a first snow by November 21, frigid temperatures freezing lakes, and bountiful snowfall,  we have a real strong possibility of recharging our ground water levels, thereby raising the levels of our spring-fed lakes.  Additionally, the ice cover has reduced the water loss through evaporation.  When will we know?  After it melts.  A quick melt will allow a lot of the precipitation to run into Lake Michigan helping that lake and others fed by runoff.  A slow melt will allow more percolation into groundwater.

The thick surface ice may not allow the lakes to warm quickly this summer.  The cooler the water, the slower the evaporation, according to Jones.  Another benefit of a long, cold winter.

Will critters and diseases be affected?  This, again, cannot be known till spring.  Rothwell suggests that diseases, such as powdery mildew,  which over winters inside buds, may be harmed by the nippy weather.  Jones has heard anecdotal evidence that bark insects are harmed by the cold.  Could the Emerald Ash Borer and other bark feeding insects be stunted?  While there is no evidence; there is hope.  Deer have difficulty finding food in heavy snow.  Jones reports deer have been engaged in greater ‘yard’ activity.  Their starvation food includes pine needles, cedars and buds.  These plants could see significant deer damage.

Personally, I am interested to see what, if any, rodent damage appears as the snow melts.  Sometimes, it is all quiet and still under that blanket of snow and sometimes…
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Vermicomposting

by Cheryl Gross and Michaelek

Worm Bin

 

Composting plant waste provides significant environmental benefits. It reduces landfill contributions and creates good organic material to feed garden plants. Backyard composting piles can accommodate both kitchen waste and yard waste. These piles break down plant waste into valuable organic matter. A pile requires attention paid to the ratio of brown to green, moisture and air. There is also work and tending involved, it can only be done during warmer weather, space is essential, and it can be a very slow process.

Vermicomposting, or worm composting, can also save some food scraps from the land fill. Composting ‘sweet‘ kitchen scraps using worms is easier than maintaining an outside composting pile and has additional benefits. ANYONE can worm compost and it requires NO outside space. When done indoors, vermicomposting is a year-round activity with little effort. The product of worm composting is worm castings, a highly nutritious fertilizer. The two methods of composting are compatible. This article is all about keeping worms.

To worm compost, a gardener needs a small investment in a bin, a garden tool for turning, old newspaper for bedding, kitchen scraps, and worms. Checking on-line there are several options for worm composting bins or towers. A large (10 to 14 gallon) solid color plastic bin with a fitted lid is ample. A couple small PCV vents fitted into the sides to increase air circulation, or two rows of 1/8th inch holes drilled around the top is recommended.

Once the hardware is ready, the bin is filled with shredded newspapers (no slick, shiny
ads, colored comics or junk mail) and a cup of outside soil or active plant compost (these provide micro nutrients). Tearing or cutting the papers works; a shredder allows smaller pieces and is convenient. Fill the bin with the dry shredded paper and then dampen the newspaper with a sprayer or watering can. Turn over the paper to ensure the paper is evenly moist. The moisture should be similar to a wrung-out sponge. Not wet, but damp. Add the soil and/or compost.

Add red worms. The worms should be a red worm variety and not night crawlers. These worms are big eaters and adapt well to living in containers. They should never be ‘set free’ in your yard as they are a non-native species. Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus rubellus are two recommended varieties. These can be ordered online from several sources. Be sure you are ordering by the Latin name, not the common name. Try www.wormwoman.com for starters.

When establishing your bin, begin adding food scraps slowly. While technically, the worms can compost any food scraps, they have preferences and some foods will add unpleasant odors to your bin. Avoid meat scraps, bones or fatty foods. Avoid cruciferous vegetables like cabbage and broccoli. Finally avoid onions, garlic and citrus.

Do feed them what they love. For example…bits of apples, pears, banana peels, melon rinds, carrot peelings, potato peelings, coffee grounds and filters, tea bags, old cakes and baked goods… anything over-ripe. A worm can eat twice its weight a week. For example, if you have a pound of worms you can expect them to eat 2 + pounds of food scraps a week. Crushed egg shells will provide the calcium worms need to reproduce.

It is best to bury the scraps in the newspaper bedding. This will avoid aerobic decomposition, odors, and insect pests. Begin sprinkling the scraps in one corner and cover. In a few days add additional food in a second corner. A few days later add to the third corner, and so on. Your worms will find the food and begin turning the scraps into valuable fertilizer (worm poop).

Check your bin weekly and add moisture sparingly with a spray bottle if the bedding begins to dry out. Add more shredded paper if things begin looking too wet and soggy and leave the cover off for several hours. Add food when supplies run down. The worms like it moist and dark. When happy they will multiply and your bin will process larger quantities of plant scraps and newspaper.

After about 2-3 months, the newspaper ‘bedding’ will be gone…all turned into castings. At this point, stop adding food for two weeks in preparation for harvesting. Harvesting is simple; separate the worms from the castings and establish a fresh bin. Some folks prefer a more passive approach. Pile the contents of the bin on one side and add fresh moist shredded newspaper and food scraps to the opposite side of the bin and the worms will relocate themselves. Then, remove the castings from the unoccupied side. Others prefer to remove everything from the bin into about 6 separate piles. With good light, the worms dive to the bottom of each pile. As you scrape or pluck the castings from the top of each pile, the worms move down and away from the light. Take a break to clean the bin and reestablish the moist newspaper bedding and a cup of soil/compost, fresh food scraps, and crushed egg shells. Once the castings have been removed, the wriggling mass of cute red worms will be ready to be scooped up and deposited into their new home.

Worm castings can be used primarily two ways, dry and crumbled or as a ‘tea’, steeped in water. For dry applications, after harvesting, allow the castings to air dry. This eliminates the possibility of stray worms getting loose in your environment. Once dried, sprinkle around your landscape or vegetable plants or mix with potting soil. Alternatively, to use as a tea, add a baseball-sized ‘glob’ to a gallon of water and allow to set or ‘steep’ for 24 hours. Water your plants with the ‘tea’. The nutritional rating, or NPH of worm castings is .5-.5-.5. It is a gentle, non-burning fertilizer filled with rich organic compounds and micro nutrients.

Trouble shooting:

Your worm bin should be tended a couple times a week to add food scraps and check on the conditions of the bin.

Should you find it TOO WET, add more bedding, such as shredded newspapers and drier foods. Mix them in gently. If the bin gets sopping wet, you may drain off some of the liquid and use for worm tea.

Should you find it TOO DRY, especially in the winter months, add water and wetter food. Worms cannot survive and reproduce in a dry environment.

Vary the food you provide your worms. A ‘mono‘ diet is not healthy for them or your plants.

Worm bins generally have a fresh, earthy odor. Should your bin become ‘STINKY ’, add more dampened, shredded newspaper and cut back the amount of food scraps you feed them. The worms can ‘correct’ the bin balance in a few days.
Evidence of OVER FEEDING is a stinky odor and the addition of too many bugs. A worm bin will naturally attract some tiny insects, an insect infestation in a symptom of over feeding. Adding moist, shredded newspapers to better cover the food scraps takes care of this problem.

UNDERFEEDING is rarely a problem, as they eat their bedding. Before leaving on vacation, check to see that the worm bin has ample bedding to hold them till you return.

Worms can thrive at a wide range of TEMPERATURES, however, please keep them out of the sun in summer as an overheated bin will kill the worms. Alternatively, store your bin inside where temps are always above 40° in the winter months.

Finally, use UNSOFTENED water. Softened water contains salts which harm the worms.

Resources:

Applehof, Mary, Worms Eat My Garbage: How to setup & maintain a vermicomposting system, Flower Press, ISBN: 0-942256-10-7

http://msue.anr.msu.edu/news/worm_composting_or_vermicomposting
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Nourish – March ’14 Real Dirt

Contents

Feed Me…Feed Me
Food of the Month: Kale

fertilizer book cover

Feed Me…Feed Me

by Nancy Denison
During my final ten years of teaching first grade and kindergarten, I had a fish tank in my classroom.  It had a calming effect, was science related and it was a lot of work.  Once a month I had to clean it but usually I stretched it to a quarterly cleaning.  By then it was pretty gunky but that gunk was like liquid gold.  Into a bucket went the sucked up gunk off the bottom. I added about a third of the old water, mixed it all together and voila, an organic plant fertilizer, which fed my school and home indoor plants!

I don’t have the fish tank anymore, but I still have lots of indoor plants, so now is the time to investigate what’s available for my (and your) collection.  Indoor plants need the same food as outdoor/garden plants; Nitrogen (healthy foliage), Phosphorus (root growth) and Potassium (big, healthy blooms).   Some fertilizers are synthetic, some are sold in granular/crystal form, liquid, stick or tablet form, and some are organic, made from seaweed, fish emulsion or earthworm castings.As a general rule, use indoor fertilizers every two weeks from February/March to August/ September.  During the darkest days of winter fertilizers are not beneficial due to the reduced light and temperatures and in fact could be detrimental to most plants.  Advantages to fertilizing are increased growth, greener leaf color, and flowering and more disease/insect resistance.  Disadvantages can take the form of leggy or overgrown plants and the loss of lower leaves.  When applying fertilizer, always follow label instructions and try to make sure the solution runs out of the bottom of the pot to reduce the chance of root burn.

Most garden centers carry several varieties of indoor fertilizers.  At Garden Goods in TC, I found the granular-time release Osmocote, liquid Miracle Grow and water soluble, seaweed based Maxsea among several other brands/forms of fertilizers.  I’m attempting a little experiment with all three and some spider plant cuttings, so I hope to be able to report my fertilizer findings in a future Real Dirt.  In the meantime, here are a few fertilizer recipes from me and “America’s Gaster gardener”, Jerry Baker…

For lush foliage:

½ TBSP Bourbon (or other whiskey)

¼ tsp instant tea granules

1 multi-vitamin with iron tablet

Mix all together with one gallon warm water

For flowering houseplants:

½ TBSP each Vodka, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide

¼ tsp instant tea granules

1 multi-vitamin with iron tablet

Mix with one gallon warm water.  When fertilizing, add one cup mixture with one gallon warm water.
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kale by srqpix on flickr

Food of the Month: Kale

by Michele Worden
Introduction:  Do you eat kale?  Kale is a hot commodity, a trendy food right now.  Kale chips compete with tortilla chips in convenience stores, and for the first time baby kale leaves are available in clamshell containers in major grocery stores.  Read on if you want to know more about Kale, the ‘Superfood’, and why everyone needs more kale.  As a bonus, try the immune system boosting Kale Smoothie recipe at the end.

Latin Name:  Brassica Oleracea

Family:  Brassica or Cole (cabbage) family, includes cabbage, broccoli, kohlrabi, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and radishes

Description:  Leaf plant (non-heading, unlike it’s cousin the cabbage), which can have curly leaves or flat leaves.  Color can be purple, greenish blue, dark green, brown or green with red veins.

Origin:  Believed to be Asia Minor or Europe; it has been in cultivation for 2000 years, from the Mediterranean to the North Sea.  It was a favorite food of the Romans and Greeks.  In the Middle Ages it was a common green vegetable in Europe.  English settlers brought kale to the Americas in the 1700’s.  Today it is eaten all over the world.

Cultivation: (how and where grown):  Kale is a biennial, which means it produces yellow flowers in its second year and then dies.  It is a cold weather crop and overwinters in the garden.  It tastes sweeter after a frost because the carbohydrates in the leaves are converted to sugar in cold weather.  In hot weather kale becomes bitter.  Like all brassicas, kale seeds germinate in 3-5 days with close to 100% germination rates, making it a great plant for school gardens or science experiments because kids see quick results.  It is also easy to harvest the seeds and save them.

Fun Fact:  Students love to eat kale grown in school gardens.  It is a favorite activity to go in to the garden after a frost and taste the kale to see if it has gotten sweeter.  I always plant it so students have a snack in the garden during outside activities.

Nutrition:  Kale is famous as a “Super Food” because it is rich in anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients, micronutrients and cancer-preventing agents.  It is one of the most nutrient dense vegetables anywhere.  Kale is extremely rich in vitamins K, A, C and minerals such as manganese, copper, calcium, and B6.  It is high in fiber, which aids in digestion and lowers cholesterol.  A serving size is 1-1/2 cup and should be eaten 2-3 times per week to achieve the health benefits.  Kale is also one of the few vegetables that have a small amount of protein.  See this link for a more detailed nutrition profile:  http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.phptname=foodspice&dbid=38#nutritionalprofile.

Note:  Kale does contain oxalates, so persons with kidney problems many have trouble with oxalate crystals (kidney stones) if they eat too much kale.  This is not usually a problem with healthy kidneys.

Culinary Uses:  Most nutritious when steamed but can be eaten raw in salads, boiled in soup and added to stir fry’s.  In the Netherlands it is served in a traditional boiled dish called “boerenkool”.  In Ireland, it is served with mashed potatoes in “Colcannon”.  (A milk, potato and kale meal was nutritious enough to keep an Irish peasant healthy and strong even though his diet lacked much meat.)  In China, Taiwan and Vietnam is added to beef in stir-fry.  In Portugal, it is part of a traditional soup called “Caldo Verde” made with a spicy sausage.    Kale is served with Christmas Ham in northern European countries.  My favorite way to eat kale is in the kale smoothie recipe at the end of this article!  A cure for the common cold?  It packs a vitamin C punch to the cold virus.

Medicinal Uses:  There has been a lot of research on kale’s cancer preventative as well as cancer treatment benefits.  Kale’s nutrient richness stands out in three particular areas: (1) antioxidant nutrients, (2) anti-inflammatory nutrients, and (3) anti-cancer nutrients in the form of glucosinolates.  Kale’s cancer preventive benefits have been linked to its unusual concentration of two types of antioxidants, namely, carotenoids and flavonoids.  To read more see:  http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=38#nutritionalprofile.

Chopped kale is sold in cans for older people or babies as nutritionally dense and easy to digest food.  The high fiber in kale helps lower cholesterol.

Variety grown or eaten in schools:    Scotch Blue Curled and Red Russian, because they are pretty!

Impact on Culture:  A winter staple that sustained many villages over the winter when food was scarce in Europe – thus saved lives throughout history.  Believed to have sustained slaves in the old south.  Slave diets were poor except for the kale and collard greens they were allowed to grow that may have prevented malnutrition. In Germany, they have kale tours and festivals in the winter.  In Scottish literature, writers tell stories about kale variety rivalries between villages.

Farm-Fresh Mean-Green Smoothie

Springtime gives us an abundance of greens and warm days gardening in the sun, making it a perfect time for a fresh take on smoothies to cool you off! By blending in kale, this all fruit smoothie packs an extra punch of protein (2g in one cup of kale) and nutrients (206% daily need for vitamin A and 10% Daily need for Calcium), but besides the fun green color you will hardly be able to tell that it is in the mix. To try it for yourself, blend:

3/4 Cup Juice (Orange, Apple, or Grape)

1/2 Apple or Pear

1 Banana (Fresh or Frozen)

1 Cup Kale (Stems removed)

1/2 Cup Water

4 Cups Ice

For the best success blending, add ingredients to your blender in the order listed. If you find it necessary, blend the orange juice, apple and banana before adding the kale, water and ice. If you want to make a lot for later or to serve at a party, blend everything except for the ice to make a smoothie mix that can be refrigerated for 4-6 hours. Then simply fill you blender half full, add ice, and blend, adding more ice as needed to reach your desired smoothie texture (freezing your banana adds extra creaminess).

Recipe adapted from vitamix, Kale and Pear Green Smoothie https://www.vitamix.com/Find-Recipes/K/A/Kale-and-Pear-Green-Smoothie
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