As a thank you to Master Gardeners for their involvement with the Botanic Garden, on September 3 at Ciccone’s MG’s enjoy a one day Revolutionary Gardens registration discount opportunity of 10% on individual lectures, the 1-day package or the full conference, a savings of up to $40. MG’s unable to attend the regular September 3 meeting may call Fountain Point at 231.256.9800 to reserve tickets and pay by credit card. Otherwise, bring a check to the meeting. Peter Hatch was just in town getting interviewed by Ron Jolly. So was Warren Byrd. For those who cannot go themselves because of weekday lecture times, this series makes an extraordinary gift to any lover of gardens, horticulture and history and is a doubly rewarding way to make a contribution to your community botanic garden.
Give Chris Skellenger a five gallon bucket and some tubing and he will teach you how to grow your food in a most economical, environmentally conservative method. Give him (and his non-profit Buckets of Rain) a truck, some dirt, seeds and refashioned GM parts bins and he will show the needy how to take a bite out of poverty.
The former owners of North Coast Nursery, Chris and Sue Skellenger, found that winter left them with time on their hands. They decided to use their knowledge of gravity fed drip irrigation and planting to help others learn to grow gardens that would provide food for some of the poorest areas in the world. That’s how 11 Oaks, now Buckets of Rain (BOR), was born. Their first stops were in the dumps of Guatemala and Honduras, followed by Kenya and Lesotho and most recently, Flint and Detroit. Currently BOR is working with the Detroit Rescue Mission and a 30,000 sq. ft. garden, which will grow 75% of the food for the Mission and 25% for the surrounding neighborhood. Many of the residents of the Mission helped with the planting and weeding of the raised bed garden plots earlier this spring. Donations have come from many companies in the Detroit area. Just recently, Chris received a new truck, trailer, and tractor, which were greatly needed. Church volunteers are caring for the Flint garden, also planted this spring.
Buckets of Rain would like the members of the MGANM to know that help is always needed, like most non-profits, in the area of funding, but also help getting seedlings started, space in a greenhouse, and mentoring high school students who are planting seedlings in the spring. If you have connections in the Detroit area, pass the word along to other MG groups, churches, or clubs, to volunteer help with planting, weeding, and harvesting.
The philosophy of doing no harm, being self-sustaining and improving lives by improving diets is right on. Personally, I am so glad Chris and his BOR compadres have come home to aid our very needy neighbors of Michigan and I look forward to volunteering in the near future. Contact Chris at bucketsofrain.org.
Steve Fouch, L & S Tree Service
Planting and caring for landscape plants can be both fun and challenging. There are many insects, diseases and plant disorders that can affect the health and vigor of plants in our gardens, lawns and fruit plantings. This can be frustrating, but following a few tips will improve your chance of success.
1. Protecting from deer damage: Deer directly feed on plant stems, leaves and fruit; resulting in poor structure, vigor and reduced yield. Male deer (bucks) not only feed on plants but also rub their antlers on the stems of trees to remove the velvet covering. This often girdles and kills the tree. There are numerous materials that can be sprayed on plants to repel deer. Active ingredients include eggs, ammonia, blood meal and other products. They tend to be short lived and must be reapplied after heavy rainfall. The most effective, yet costly method of minimizing deer damage is exclusionary fencing.
2. Girdling of fruit trees by mice: The easiest method to prevent damage by mice is to apply flexible plastic wraps around the main stem, especially during the first few years. Use white colored wraps. Bury the bottom couple of inches of wrap below the soil surface to prevent it from migrating upward and exposing the main stem to possible rodent damage. After a few years the wraps can be removed, and the trunks painted with white outdoor latex paint to minimize winter injury. Do not use any rigid or dark colored wraps as these can cause physical damage to the tree trunks or increase winter injury.
3. Grub damage in lawns: Grubs are one of the most destructive pests of turf, feeding on the roots and killing large areas of grass. The life cycle of grubs can last several years in the soil. As the soil temperature increases in the spring, they move closer to the soil surface to feed on the plant roots. The best time to apply grub control pesticides will depend on the predominant species of grub each year. As the soil temperature decreases in the fall and winter, grubs move deeper in the soil profile. New research indicates that keeping your mowing height near 3 inches will minimize the damage caused by grubs. Keeping your lawn dense and vigorous will also reduce grub damage.
4. Birch Borer: One of the most common tree pests in the landscape is the bronze birch borer, which attacks white birch. Only stressed birch trees can be attacked by this insect. Once the tree is stressed by drought or low fertility, leaf miners will attack the leaves in the upper regions of the tree. When the birch tree has been defoliated for several years, it will be a target of the birch borer. The top third of the tree will be killed first. The rest of the tree will often die soon thereafter. Keeping your trees well watered and fertilized will help to prevent borer damage. Infected trees can be treated with systemic insecticides as a last chance.
5. Emerald Ash Borer: Damage by EAB in the Northwest Area of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula has reached a peak. Ash trees that have been attacked are easy to see as one drives on roads adjacent to wooded area. Once a tree is affected severely, it cannot be saved. “Tre-Age” is the highest rated material to protect your ash trees from EAB. It is injected into a number of sites at the base of the tree and moves upward through the vascular tissues throughout the canopy. This systemic insecticide kills any borers already in the tree and protects the tree from attack for up to two years.
For more information on EAB and other tree pests contact your local tree care business.
Oftentimes we can trace our love of gardens, whether food or flowers, to a specific point in our lives. Read about the misadventures of a child, and the path she took. Also, learn more about the efforts of Mike Davis, Kirsten Gerbatsch, Mike Kiessell, Ellen Lapekas, Trina Ball, and so many other MG’s for their heroic efforts in creating community and school gardens especially for children. Be inspired and stay informed about the creative school gardens and MG-Seeds Demonstration garden project, and get involved if you can, here.
So what is a bean? Think you know? “Bean is a common name for large plant seeds used for human food or animal feed of several genera of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae).” From that point, it gets tricky. It doesn’t help we commonly call things beans that are not beans but look like beans, such as cocoa beans, coffee beans and vanilla beans. It also does not help that botanists keep reclassifying legumes and beans to be in different families and genera. Also, the term bean is sometimes used as a synonym of the word pulse, which is an edible legume. Confused yet? Read on…
First, a clarification: the term “pulse” is usually reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry seed such as lentils or mung beans. This excludes green beans and green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Also excluded in the definition of pulse are crops that are mainly grown for oil extraction (oilseeds like soybeans and peanuts), and crops used exclusively for sowing (clovers, alfalfa).
So here is what I have surmised in my bean research as an overview. The Fabaceae Family (or Leguminosae), commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family, is a large and economically important family of flowering plants. This group is the third-largest land plant family and is divided into several large genera.
Beans from the Old World are in the genus Vicia (broad and fava beans, vetch), the genus Cicer (garbanzo beans or chickpeas), and the genus Pisum (peas). Asian beans seem to be in the genus Vigna (mung beans, yard-long beans, black-eyed peas) and Glycine (soybeans) but botanists keep changing their classification. Beans from the New World are the genus Phaseolus, which includes green beans, scarlet runner beans, and lima beans.
For simplicity sake, the remainder of this article will focus on Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean that we plant in the garden in the summer.
Latin Name: Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean
Botanical Family: Fabaceae,
Description: Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean, is a herbaceous annual plant, grown worldwide for its edible beans, which are eaten both fresh as unripe fruit and as dried seeds. It is considered a vegetable. Phaseolus vulgaris includes string bean, field bean, flageolet bean, French bean, garden bean, haricot bean, pop bean or snap bean. Kidney bean, navy bean, and wax bean are types of Phaseolus vulgaris named for their fruit and seed characteristics.
All varieties bear alternate, green or purple leaves, which are divided into three oval, smooth-edged leaflets. The white, pink, or purple flowers give way to pods 3-8 in long. The pods may be green, yellow, black, or purple in color, each containing 4-6 beans. The beans are smooth, plump, kidney-shaped, and range widely in color, and are often mottled in two or more colors.
Common beans are classified into bush and pole (running) varieties. Bush beans are short plants, growing to approximately two feet in height, without requiring supports. They generally reach maturity and produce all of their fruit in a relatively short period of time, then cease to produce. Gardeners may grow more than one crop of bush beans in a season. Pole beans have a climbing habit and produce a twisting vine that is 6-9′ in length.
There are many varieties of beans that are cultivated primarily for a dried seed product such as kidney beans, pinto beans, and cranberry beans. Green bean varieties have been bred especially for the fleshiness, flavor, or sweetness of their pods. Haricots verts, French for “green beans”, may refer to a longer, thinner type of green bean than the typical American green bean. The first “stringless” bean was bred in 1894 by Calvin Keeney, called the “father of the stringless bean”, while working in Le Roy, New York.
Origin: Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. The oldest-known domesticated beans in the Americas were found in Guitarrero Cave, an archaeological site in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BCE. Phaselous vulgaris was grown by native peoples from Chile to the northern part of what is now the United States.
Phaseolus was first seen by a European when Christopher Columbus, during his exploration of what may have been the Bahamas, found them growing in fields. Five kinds of Phaseolus beans were domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples: common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown from Chile to the northern part of what is now the United States, and lima and sieva beans (Phaseolus lunatus), as well as the less widely distributed teparies (Phaseolus acutifolius), scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus) and polyanthus beans (Phaseolus polyanthus). These beans were taken back to Europe where they became staples in European cuisine. Cannellini beans in Italian cooking are actually Phaseolus vulgaris from the New World.
Cultivation (how and where grown): The common bean is a warm season crop and can be planted directly into the garden when the soil temperature is above 65 F. Beans germinate very quickly, usually in 3-5 days. Harvest can occur in 50-75 days, depending on the variety. Beans are legumes, so they acquire their nitrogen through an association with rhizobia: species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria that attach to the roots of the plant. Legumes are often used in agriculture as the next crop to replenish soils that are low in nitrogen when crops are rotated.
As the bean pods mature, they turn yellow and dry up, and the beans inside change from green to their mature color. As a vine, bean plants need external support, which may be provided in the form of special “bean cages” or poles. In more recent times, the so-called “bush bean” has been developed which does not require support and has all its pods develop simultaneously (as opposed to pole beans which develop gradually). This makes the bush bean more practical for commercial production.
The commercial production of beans is well distributed worldwide, with countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, South and North America all among the top bean growers. Brazil and India are the largest producers of dry beans while China produces, by far, the largest quantity of green beans.
Fun Facts: Beans are a heliotropic plant, meaning that the leaves tilt throughout the day to face the sun. At nighttime, they go into a folded “sleep” position.
Phaseolus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Common Swift, Garden Dart, Ghost Moth Hypercompe albicornis, Hypercompe icasia, the Nutmeg and various caterpillar species.
Nutrition: Beans were an important source of protein throughout Old and New World history, and still are today.
Fresh beans have higher values for vitamin C and vitamin A. In general, the common bean is high in starch, protein and dietary fiber and is an excellent source of iron, potassium, selenium, molybdenum, thiamine, vitamin B6, and folate. Beans also have significant amounts of fiber and soluble fiber, with one cup of cooked beans providing between nine and 13 grams of fiber. Soluble fiber helps lower blood cholesterol.
Culinary Uses: Green beans, wax beans (yellow) and purple beans are delicious fresh or steamed. They can be used in sautés, stir-fried or baked in casseroles. Shelling beans are beans removed from their pods before being cooked or dried. Fresh shell beans are nutritionally similar to dry beans, but are prepared more like a vegetable, often being steamed, fried, or made into soups.
Dry beans will keep indefinitely if stored in a cool, dry place, but as time passes, their nutritive value and flavor degrade and cooking times lengthen. Dried beans are almost always cooked by boiling, often after being soaked for several hours. While the soaking is not strictly necessary, it shortens cooking time and results in more evenly textured beans. In addition, soaking beans removes 5 to 10 percent of the gas-producing sugars that can cause flatulence for some people. The several methods include overnight soaking, and the power soak method, in which beans are boiled for three minutes and then set aside for 2-4 hours. Before cooking, the excess water is drained and discarded.
In Mexico, Central America and South America, the traditional spice to use with beans is epazote, which is also said to aid digestion. In East Asia, a type of seaweed, kombu, is added to beans as they cook for the same purpose. Salt, sugar, and acidic foods such as tomatoes may harden uncooked beans, resulting in seasoned beans at the expense of slightly longer cooking times.
Dry beans may also be bought cooked and canned as refried beans, or whole with water, salt, and sometimes sugar.
Medicinal Uses: Herbal medicine websites say that beans are a diuretic and that bean pods are effective in lowing blood sugar levels, if eaten in large quantities, to treat mild cases of diabetes. A bean pod diet for this purpose would mean eating 9-16 lb. of pods per week be cooked like vegetables. Bean pod tea is useful for dropsy, sciatica, chronic rheumatism, kidney and bladder problems, uric acid accumulations, and loss of albumin in the urine during pregnancy. Externally, bean tea promotes healing of ulcers and sores. Prolonged use of the decoction made from the beans is recommended for difficult cases of acne. Bean meal can also be applied directly to the skin for moist eczema, eruptions, and itching.
My favorite varieties: Dragon’s tongue (purple spotted), Beurre de Roquencourt (yellow wax), purple-podded pole bean.
Impact on Culture: “Beans, beans the musical fruit” is a popular children’s rhyme. Many edible beans, including broad beans and soybeans, contain oligosaccharides, a type of sugar molecule, which are digested in the large intestine by bacteria. A by-product of the digestion process is gas and flatulence.
Beans, squash and maize constitute the “Three Sisters”, planting companions that provide the foundation of Native American agriculture. In the “Three Sisters”, the tall cornstalks act as support for the beans, while the squash provide a living mulch for the roots of the corn.
Appearance in Literature: Jack and the Beanstalk is a famous fairytale.
Lillian Mahaney and Cheryl Gross
The best thing about working in the garden with kids is the FUN. As gardeners, we all find some wonderful feeling of satisfaction being in relationship with plants. Is it your tomato production, raspberry jam, picture-perfect lawn, spectacular flower color, or enriched soils that bring you joy? When we share our love of gardening with the young ones, there are a host of tips to get the message across and make it FUN.
Lillian Mahaney, our very own, local, Jr MG instructor and instructor trainer uses CDs by a band from California. They are four guys who write and perform songs, some with hand motions, to teach aspects of the natural world. Lil encourages you to check out the Banana Slug String Band’s Singing in the Garden CD.
“The Water Cycle Boogie”, for example, blasts out evaporation, condensation and precipitation in song and dance. “FBI” in their hands becomes…fungus, bacteria and invertebrates, which really delights the boys. “Dirt Made My Lunch” clears up any uncertainty of where all of our food originates. Finally, in a nod to us older folks, the , “Give Plants a Chance”.
Whether you work alongside your own children/grandchildren, with an after school/recreation/public library gardening program, school farming, or the whole kit and caboodle Junior Master Gardeners, YOU can keep it fun by singing along the facts of gardening with the Banana Slug String Band! Google the band’s title and find sites with snippets of songs. They will make you smile.
Stay tuned to this newsletter and the MGANM website. Lillian plans to offer a JR MG training program this fall, which will include a whole host of tips for working with kids in the garden.
Mike Jones, Benzie Conservation District
With Northern Michigan’s abundance of inland lakes, rivers, and streams, waterfront property is important to residents, the health of the lakes and streams, and the wildlife they support. The shoreline and shallow water areas of a lake provide essential habitat for many fish and wildlife species.
Overdeveloped shorelines cannot support the fish, wildlife, and clean water that attract Michigan property owners and visitors to the waterfront. High-impact waterfront landscaping, with lawn to the water’s edge, creates problems for the lake ecosystem and waterfront owners. Rainwater carries lawn fertilizer, pet waste, leaves, and grass clippings into the lake, which promotes algal growth and the seasonal blooms that cause “green water”. Plants with shallow roots, especially grass, allow the shoreline to erode easily. Perfectly manicured lawns attract nuisance wildlife species such as geese. Hard-engineered shoreline structures such as seawalls and rip-rap, hinder the movement of wildlife to and from the lake and drastically alter the nearshore ecosystems that so many species depend on.
Alternative landscaping solutions can create attractive waterfronts that allow the recreational use of the shoreline while mimicking the functions of the wild shoreline of an undeveloped lake. Additional natural landscaping techniques such as rain gardens can filter pollutants such as bacteria, chemicals, and nutrients from runoff before it reaches our lakes.
With proper design, it is possible to have a beautiful shoreline that functions to protect the water quality and wildlife habitat while still enjoying the views and recreational uses that attract us to lakes.
Sunday Sept 29, 2013 – Thursday, Oct 3, 2013
This 4-day conference is a tax-deductible benefit event for the Botanical Garden Society of Northwest Michigan and will feature a series of lectures by internationally-known garden authors and designers Andrea Wulf, Peter Hatch and Warren Byrd. You may register for single workshops, single days, or the complete conference. Two special donor options are also available: Garden VIP and Garden Friend. You may pay online through Pay Pal or send your check to: BGSNM, Box 1247, Traverse City, MI 49685-1247. Checks should be made payable to BGSNM. Registrants can sign up for a variety of programs. Go to the BGS webpage to register, and/or click on the image for this article to take you to a copy of the full schedule.
One of the speakers at the upcoming “Revolutionary Gardeners Conference” is Andrea Wulf.
Trained as a design historian at the Royal College of Art in London, Andrea Wulf is a fulltime writer. She is the author of four books and writes for a number of papers, including the Wall Street Journal, LA Times, and Financial Times.
She has lectured to audiences at the Royal Geographical Society and the Royal Society in London along with the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia and Chicago Botanic Garden among many others.
As a three-time fellow of International Center for Jefferson Studies at Monticello, Wulf is extremely familiar with American gardening history. One of Wulf’s books Founding Gardeners looks at Revolutionary America by focusing on the gardening of four of the Founding Fathers.
We are privileged to have such a powerful and passionate speaker here in Northern Michigan.
For the full schedule of lectures, click here.